Hull Public Health 

The Deep, Hull The Guildhall, Hull King William Statue, Market Place, Hull City Hall, Hull Spurn Lightship, The Marina, Hull

 

 

Index List: C


Cancer

- see Cancer

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Cancer Screening Rates

- see Screening

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Car / Access to a Car or Van

- see Environmental Factors and Housing

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Car Accidents

Rates killed or seriously injured in traffic accidents are given in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Accidents.

The number of people reported killed or seriously injured on the roads per 100,000 resident population are indicators within Public Health Outcomes Framework and further analysis is given within the Public Health Outcomes Framework Main Report (to open this report on a particular PHOF indicator, click here) and Public Health Outcomes Framework Summary.

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Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

- see Cardiovascular Disease

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Care Homes

Ward level data from the 2011 Census is available in the JSNA Hull Atlas in relation to population estimates of those in 'communal establishments' which includes care homes (as well as children's homes, nurses' accommodation, etc).

The Projecting Older People Population Information (POPPI) System provides population projections for people aged 65+ years for 2011, 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. It provides estimates of the number of people aged 65+ years in Hull expected to live in a local authority or non-local authority care home with or without nursing. These estimates are available in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Older People.

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Carer Benefits

- see Deprivation

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Caring for Others

Support for carers, support to live at home and numbers of new social support clients is given in Hull JSNA Toolkit: General Health, Disabilities, Caring and Use of Healthcare Services.

The Projecting Older People Population Information (POPPI) System provides population projections for people aged 65+ years for 2011, 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. It provides estimates of the number of people aged 65+ years in Hull who are expected to be providing unpaid care to a partner, family member of other person, and the estimated numbers aged 65+ years who will require care themselves (at different levels of care). These estimates are available in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Older People.

The Adult Health and Lifestyle Survey 2011-12 asked about caring responsibilities which included details of who the person cared for, the time spend caring for that person or those persons, and the frequency and type of activity (such as helping the person wash, dress or feed themselves, giving medication, doing housework, helping with finances, preparing meals, going shopping for them and giving them lifts). The findings are summarised within Hull JSNA Toolkit: General Health, Disabilities, Caring and Use of Healthcare Services, with more detailed information within the survey reports:

Adult Health and Lifestyle Survey 2011-12 Main Report (948 pages)
BME Health and Lifestyle Survey 2011-12 Main Report (183 pages)
Adult Health and Lifestyle Survey 2011-12 Questionnaire (32 pages)

The information is included within the JSNA Hull Atlas.

The Young People Health and Lifestyle Surveys 2008-09 and 2012 asked about caring responsibilities. In both surveys, young people were asked if they helped look after a disabled or ill mother, father, brother or sister, helped look after elderly grandparents or someone else. In the 2008-09 survey, young people were also asked about the length of time spend on a typical school day that they spent "caring (e.g. helping someone get washed or dressed)" and "helping (e.g. cooking, washing up)". The overall percentages looking after someone are summarised within Hull JSNA Toolkit: General Health, Disabilities, Caring and Use of Healthcare Services, with more detailed information within the survey reports:

Young People Health and Lifestyle Survey 2012 Main Report (205 pages)
Young People Health and Lifestyle Survey 2012 Questionnaire (21 pages)
Young People Health and Lifestyle Survey 2008-09 Main Report (183 pages)
Young People Health and Lifestyle Survey 2008-09 Questionnaire (26 pages)

Hull JSNA Toolkit: General Health, Disabilities, Caring and Use of Healthcare Services also gives the number of carers receiving support or information as a percentage of the people receiving a community-based service.

There is information in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Deprivation and Associated Measures on benefit claimants of Disability Living Allowance (DLA) and Attendance Allowance (AA) which are for people who have a disability and as a result need help with personal care (care component) or getting around (mobility component) or both. The allowance is to help with the extra cost of personal care (for example, washing, dressing and bathing) or for supervision or getting around

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Cause of Death by Age

- see Mortality

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Cause of Death by Detailed Cause

- see Mortality

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Cause of Death Pie Charts

- see Mortality

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CCG/ Clinical Commissioning Group

- see Geographical Area

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Census

A Census has been undertaken in England every ten years for more than a century, with the last one undertaken on the 27th March 2011. In theory, every person living in England should complete a census form. There are questions about the household such as dwelling type, numbers and relationships of those in the home (household composition), central heating, tenure and access to car or van, and from this information such as population estimates, population density, lone parents, adult life stage, overcrowding and a measure of household deprivation can be obtained. Individual information was also collected on marital status, ethnicity, main language spoken at home and proficiency in English, religion, highest educational attainment, employment, usual method to travel to work, socio-economic group and health.

The majority of the above information from the 2011 Census is available in the JSNA Hull Atlas at ward level.

The Humber Data Observatory have completed ward profiles for each ward in Hull (and the Humber), which include information from the 2011 Census.

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Central Heating

- see Environmental Risk and Housing

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Cervical Cancer

The number of deaths are relatively small per year, so there is not a specific section within the JSNA Toolkit, but information is included on the incidence in the general section relating to the incidence of cancer and the number of deaths is given within the cause of death section within Hull JSNA Toolkit: All Cancers.

Uptake rates for cervical cancer screening and factors influencing uptake is given within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Screening.

Cervical cancer screening uptake is an indicator within Public Health Outcomes Framework and further analysis is given within the Public Health Outcomes Framework Main Report (to open this report on a particular PHOF indicator, click here) and Public Health Outcomes Framework Summary.

Information is also available in the Cancer Equity Audit.

General information relating to cancer is also available.

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CHD / Coronary Heart Disease

Information is given in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Coronary Heart Disease on coronary heart disease (CHD) in relation to risk factors, prevalence, modelled prevalence, inpatient admissions and mortality. Hospital admission and mortality information is also presented by deprivation.   Expenditure is also detailed within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Coronary Heart Disease.

There are also specific programme budgeting and marginal analysis reports for CHD which examines expenditure in relation to outcomes for Hull and compares these with other comparator areas:

PBMA CHD 2009/10
PBMA CHD 2008/09
PBMA CHD 2007/08

Information on influenza vaccination uptake among those on the CHD register is also given within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Coronary Heart Disease.

More detailed information is available on CHD within the CHD Equity Audit completed September 2005.

The Projecting Older People Population Information (POPPI) System provides population projections for people aged 65+ years for 2011, 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. It provides estimates of the number of people aged 65+ years in Hull are predicted to have had a heart attack. These estimates are available in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Older People.

For associated information, see Cardiovascular Disease.

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Childhood Obesity

Primary school children in year R (reception, aged 4-5 years) and year 6 (aged 10-11 years) in Hull have their height and weight measured by school nurses as part of the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP). As well as the information on childhood obesity that may be found in the Obesity and Overweight Report 2013 and the JSNA Toolkit, Hull Public Health also produce regular reports on the local NCMP data, the most recent of which are:

Obesity in Children in Hull 2011-12
Weight Trends for Children in Hull, 2010/11

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Child Poverty

A measure of child poverty is an indicator within Public Health Outcomes Framework and further analysis is given within the Public Health Outcomes Framework Main Report (to open this report on a particular PHOF indicator, click here) and Public Health Outcomes Framework Summary. This information is also displayed within the JSNA Hull Atlas.

More information can be found within the JSNA and Hull JSNA Toolkit: Deprivation and Associated Measures.

See also Deprivation.

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Child Vaccinations

-see Vaccinations and Immunisations

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Children

There are a number of school-based surveys that have been completed among young people (aged 11-16 years) living in Hull. Information relating to the surveys is detailed in the survey reports and summarised within the JSNA Toolkit. The surveys covered:

General health status
Access to internet and mobile phones
Physical activity
Safety
Happiness
School
Bullying
Worries
Family
Caring
Ethnicity
Health and use of health care services including dentistry
Diet and cookery
Alcohol
Smoking
Drugs
Sexual health

Some of the survey data is also displayed at ward level in the JSNA Hull Atlas.

Information relating to young people is contained throughout the JSNA Toolkit. The ordering of the topics for the JSNA Toolkit Release 4 and earlier releases has been around risk factors, vaccinations and specific diseases rather than on different age groups, although there are further sections on young people and older people for topics that did not specifically fall into any of the diseases or other topics.

See also Vaccinations and Immunisations.

A number of indicators within the Public Health Outcomes Framework relate to young people and further analysis is given within the Public Health Outcomes Framework for Children and Young People and Public Health Outcomes Framework Summary. The indicators include:

Children in poverty
Pupil absence
First time entrants into youth justice system
Low birth weight
Breastfeeding
Smoking at time of delivery
Under 18 conceptions
Excess weight in 4-5 and 10-11 year olds
Hospital admissions caused by unintentional and deliberate injuries in young people
Emotional wellbeing of looked after children
Infant mortality

Some of the Public Health Outcomes Framework indicators such as children in poverty, pupil absence (based on ward of school), excess weight and hospital admissions for children are also displayed at ward level in the JSNA Hull Atlas.

There are also specific programme budgeting and marginal analysis reports on children and young people which examines expenditure in relation to outcomes for Hull and compares these with other comparator areas:

PBMA Children and Young People 2009/10
PBMA Children and Young People 2008/09
PBMA Children and Young People 2007/08

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Children in Poverty

A measure of child poverty is an indicator within Public Health Outcomes Framework and further analysis is given within the Public Health Outcomes Framework Main Report (to open this report on a particular PHOF indicator, click here) and Public Health Outcomes Framework Summary. This information is also displayed within the JSNA Hull Atlas.

More information can be found within the JSNA andHull JSNA Toolkit: Deprivation and Associated Measures.

See also Deprivation.

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Chlamydia

The diagnosis rate of Chlamydia is given in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Sexual Health together with the numbers aged 15-24 years who were tested for Chlamydia.

The Young People Health and Lifestyle Surveys conducted in 2008-09 and 2012 asked if young people had heard of Chlamydia. The results are included within the survey reports:

Young People Health and Lifestyle Survey 2012 Main Report (205 pages)
Young People Health and Lifestyle Survey 2008-09 Main Report (183 pages)

The crude rate of Chlamydia diagnoses per 100,000 young adults aged 15-24 years is an indicator within Public Health Outcomes Framework and further analysis is given within the Public Health Outcomes Framework Main Report (to open this report on a particular PHOF indicator, click here) and Public Health Outcomes Framework Summary.

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Chronic Kidney Disease

The prevalence and modelled prevalence for each general practice are given in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Chronic Kidney Disease. The prevalence is also given in relation to deprivation.

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / COPD

- see Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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Circulatory Disease

- see Cardiovascular Disease

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Civic Engagement

- see Social Capital

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Climate Change

– see Environmental Factors and Housing

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Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG)

- see Geographical Area

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Colorectal Cancer

Information relating to risk factors, incidence, hospital admissions, mortality and survival is included within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Colorectal Cancer. Hospital admission and mortality information is also presented by deprivation.  The percentage of bowel cancer deaths out of all cancer deaths is also given.

Information on bowel screening is given within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Colorectal Cancer and Hull JSNA Toolkit: Screening.

Information is also available in the Cancer Equity Audit.

General information relating to cancer is also available.

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Combined Risk Factors

A number of Health and Lifestyle Surveys have been undertaken in Hull to provide prevalence estimates of lifestyle risk behaviours relating to:

Smoking
Diet
Exercise
Obesity
Alcohol

The percentage of survey responders with multiple risk factors has been examined within the JSNA Toolkit for both adults and young people.

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Commissioned Services

Details of some of the commissioned services for dietary advice, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and weight loss are given within the JSNA Toolkit and the following risk factor reports:

Smoking Report 2013
Alcohol Report 2013
Diet and Physical Activity Report 2013
Obesity and Overweight Report 2013

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Commissioning of Services

The Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) plays a role in providing the information so that appropriate commissioning decisions can be made. Some details are given within the JSNA Toolkit. The JSNA Toolkit Release 4 included some background information on previous commissioning approaches undertaken by NHS Hull, such as World Class Commissioning.

Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs) analyse the health needs of populations to inform and guide commissioning of health, well-being and social care services within local authority areas. The JSNA will underpin the health and well-being strategies, a proposed new statutory requirement and commissioning plans. The main goal of a JSNA is to accurately assess the health needs of a local population in order to improve the physical and mental health and well-being of individuals and communities. The NHS and upper-tier local authorities have had a statutory duty to produce an annual JSNA since 2007.

The Health and Social Care Act 2012 amends the Local Government and Public Involvement in Health Act 2007 to introduce duties and powers for health and wellbeing boards in relation to the JSNAs and Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategies (JHWSs). The purpose of JSNAs and JHWSs is to improve the health and wellbeing of the local community and reduce inequalities for all ages. They are not en end in themselves, but a continuous process of strategic assessment and planning – the core aim is to develop local evidence-based priorities for commissioning which will improve the public's health and reduce inequalities. Their outputs, in the form of evidence and the analysis of needs, and agreed priorities, will be used to help to determine what actions local authorities, the local NHS and other partners need to take to meet health and social care needs, and to address the wider determinants that impact on health and wellbeing.

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Communicable Diseases

There is relatively little data available on the prevalence of different communicable diseases. Information on the number of new cases of measles and whooping cough among children is included within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Children and Young People.

The number of deaths are relatively small per year, so there is not a specific section within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Children and Young People, but information on the number of deaths by cause of death is given within the cause of death section within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Mortality.

Information is given on tuberculosis within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Infectious Diseases.

The incidence rate and percentage completing treatment for tuberculosis, and the mortality rate from communicable diseases are indicators within Public Health Outcomes Framework and further analysis is given within the Public Health Outcomes Framework Main Report (to open this report on a particular PHOF indicator, click here) and Public Health Outcomes Framework Summary. The ward mortality rates for communicable diseases are also displayed within the JSNA Hull Atlas.

More information is available on Vaccinations and Immunisations against communicable diseases.

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Communities for Health Programme

The Communities for Health Programme is designed to promote action across local organisations – voluntary sector, NHS, local authorities, business and industry – on a locally-chosen priority for health, to celebrate achievements, and build momentum for future change. In 2008-2009, each of the 7 Areas were allocated £10,000 to spend on locally identified community-based health-improvement activities. Funding has continued in later years. Further brief details are available on the JSNA Toolkit.

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Community Care

There are specific programme budgeting and marginal analysis reports for primary and community care which examine expenditure in relation to outcomes for Hull and compare these with other comparator areas:

PBMA Primary and Community Care 2009/10
PBMA Primary and Community Care 2008/09
PBMA Primary and Community Care 2007/08

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Comparator Areas

Comparator Areas gives details of the comparator areas which are similar to Hull and have been used for benchmarking within the JSNA Toolkit and other local reports. Various factors such as population, ethnicity, deprivation, housing stock, etc are examined in relation to the characteristics of Hull in Comparator Areas and the JSNA Toolkit. These comparator areas are also used within the local analysis of the Public Health Outcomes Framework indicators, and can be seen within the Public Health Outcomes Framework Main Report (to open this report on a particular PHOF indicator, click here).

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Conception Rates

The trends in the under 18s (and under 16s) conception rate is given in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Sexual Health and Hull JSNA Toolkit: Children and Young People.

The under 18 conception rate is an indicator within Public Health Outcomes Framework and further analysis is given within the Public Health Outcomes Framework Main Report (to open this report on a particular PHOF indicator, click here) and Public Health Outcomes Framework Summary. This is also displayed within the JSNA Hull Atlas.

Further associated information (e.g. fertility rates, abortions and numbers of births) for women of all ages are also given in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Sexual Health.

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Confidence Intervals

– see Glossary

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Confounding

– see Glossary

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Cookery / Cookery Skills

- see Diet

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COPD / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

- see Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Angiography is an investigation of coronary heart disease (CHD) undertaken to assess whether one of two common treatments are necessary: percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Whilst specific patients may be more suitable to either PCI or CABG, for most patients both treatments are equally effective and the choice of treatment depends on available resources and/or clinician preference. However, generally PCI is becoming more common as it is does not involve open surgery as CABG does. Overall treatment (revascularisation) rates are given within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Coronary Heart Disease and Coronary Heart Disease Equity Audit for PCI and CABG combined rather than examining PCI rates and CABG rates separately. The rates of revascularisation are also given in relation to deprivation. Elective and non-elective admissions for CHD are also given within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Coronary Heart Disease.

Information is given at ward level in the JSNA Hull Atlas.

For associated information, see Cardiovascular Disease.

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Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

Information is given in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Coronary Heart Disease on coronary heart disease (CHD) in relation to risk factors, prevalence, modelled prevalence, inpatient admissions and mortality. Hospital admission and mortality information is also presented by deprivation.   Expenditure is also detailed within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Coronary Heart Disease.

There are also specific programme budgeting and marginal analysis reports for CHD which examines expenditure in relation to outcomes for Hull and compares these with other comparator areas:

PBMA CHD 2009/10
PBMA CHD 2008/09
PBMA CHD 2007/08

Information on influenza vaccination uptake among those on the CHD register is also given within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Coronary Heart Disease.

More detailed information is available on CHD within the CHD Equity Audit completed September 2005.

The Projecting Older People Population Information (POPPI) System provides population projections for people aged 65+ years for 2011, 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. It provides estimates of the number of people aged 65+ years in Hull are predicted to have had a heart attack. These estimates are available in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Older People.

For associated information, see Cardiovascular Disease.

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Costs of smoking

For an examination of the economic and social costs of smoking in Hull see Tobacco Control - Costs of Smoking in Hull and East Riding of Yorkshire.

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Council Tax Banding

- see Environmental Factors and Housing

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Crime

The number of crimes and crime rate for different types of crime is given at ward level within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Deprivation and Associated Measures.

First-time entrants into youth justice system, re-offending (percentage who re-offend and average number of re-offences per offender) and the rate of violent crime (hospital admissions for violence and crime rate) are indicators within the Public Health Outcomes Framework and further analysis is given within the Public Health Outcomes Framework Main Report (to open this report on a particular PHOF indicator, click here) and Public Health Outcomes Framework Summary. The hospital admission rate for violent crime is also given at ward level in the JSNA Hull Atlas.

The number of crimes and crime rate for different types of crime are available at ward level within JSNA Hull Atlas.

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Critical Appraisal

The slides from a recent workshop on critical appraisal run by Mandy Porter in September 2014, including detailed 'notes' pages, are availabe:

Critical Apprisal Workshop slides

For further information on statistical issues and support please visit our Statistical Help page.

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Cumulative Mortality Plots

The number of deaths for different causes and cumulative mortality plots by age over all causes are produced within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Mortality. A detailed list of causes of death is also given within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Mortality as well as pie charts showing the main causes of death for all causes and for cancer.

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Customer Profiles

The Hull City Council Customer Profiles were produced using the methodology from a Leeds University PhD project, which involved cluster analysis of a number of 2001 Census variables at lower layer super output area level. The ten classifications that were produced were largely defined by housing tenure and age. Life expectancy and under 75 all cause mortality rates have been examined within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Life Expectancy and Hull JSNA Toolkit: Mortality respectively in relation to these Customer Profile types.  The Customer Profiles have recently been updated using information from the 2011 Census.

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CVD / Cardiovascular Disease

- see Cardiovascular Disease

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