Hull Public Health 

The Deep, Hull The Guildhall, Hull King William Statue, Market Place, Hull City Hall, Hull Spurn Lightship, The Marina, Hull

 

 

Geo-demographic Segmentation

Information relating to geo-demographic segmentation is given in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Deprivation and Associated Measures, but is also available on the JSNA Hull Atlas.

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Introduction

Various classifications models of different characteristics of residents have been produced. These classifications use various data to create groups of people who are deemed to be similar with regard to certain characteristics. The information used to assess the similarity of the people differs depending on the classification system, and the information is not divulged by the companies producing the classifications. However, in general, the type of information used are responses from the 2001 Census, and information relating to employment, car ownership, financial behaviour, health and hospital admissions, shopping behaviour, and for health specifically information from food consumption, and health and lifestyle surveys. Most of this information is applied at output area or postcode level. These 'types' are generally targeted or treated differently, based on their characteristics (lifestyle, attitudes or behaviour etc), in terms of marketing of commercial products (which could include health-related care or public health).

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ACORN and Wellbeing ACORN

One such classification in common usage is the ACORN classification (A Classification of Residential Neighbourhoods), and there is also an ACORN classification specifically for wellbeing. For both the ACORN and Wellbeing ACORN classifications, the proportions of the resident population within each category will depend on levels of deprivation as well as the age structure of the population. Information relating to ACORN and Wellbeing ACORN classification among Hull residents, and for specific projects examining characteristics of individuals (such as examining population migration, lung cancer mortality and breastfeeding) have been reported on within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Deprivation and Associated Measures and Hull JSNA Toolkit: Children and Young People respectively.

There are three nested ACORN layers, Categories (5), Groups (17) and Types (59) as follows:

1: Affluent Achievers

1A: Lavish Lifestyles

1A1: Exclusive enclaves
1A2: Metropolitan money
1A3: Large house luxury

1B: Executive Wealth

1B4: Asset rich families
1B5: Wealthy countryside commuters
1B6: Financially comfortable families
1B7: Affluent professionals
1B8: Prosperous suburban families
1B9: Well-off edge of towners

1C: Mature Money

1C10: Better-off villagers
1C11: Settled suburbia, older people
1C12: Retired and empty nesters
1C13: Upmarket downsizers

2: Rising Prosperity

2D: City Sophisticates

2D14: Townhouse cosmopolitans
2D15: Younger professionals in smaller flats
2D16: Metropolitan professionals
2D17: Socialising young renters

2E: Career Climbers

2E18: Career driven young families
2E19: First time buyers in small, modern homes
2E20: Mixed metropolitan areas

3: Comfortable Communities

£F: Countryside Communities

3F21: Farms and cottages
3F22: Larger families in rural areas
3F23: Owner occupiers in small towns and villages

3G: Successful Suburbs

3G24: Comfortably-off families in modern housing
3G25: Larger family homes, multi-ethnic areas
3G26: Semi-professional families, owner occupied neighbourhoods

3H: Steady Neighbourhoods

3H27:Suburban semis, conventional attitudes
3H28: Owner occupied terraces, average incomes
3H29: Established suburbs, older families

3I: Comfortable Seniors

3I30: Older people, neat and tidy neighbourhoods
3I31: Elderly singles in purpose-built accomodation

3J: Starting Out

3J32: Educated families in terraces, young children
3J33: Smaller houses and starter homes

4:Financially Stretched

Group 4K: Student Life

4K34: Student flats and halls of residence
4K35: Term-time terraces
4K36: Educated young people in flats and tenements

4L: Modest Means

4L37: Low cost flats in suburband areas
4L38: Semi-skilled workers in traditional neighbourhoods
4L39: Fading owner occupied terraces
4L40: High occupancy terraces, many Asian families

4M: Striving Families

4M41: Labouring semi-rural estates
4M42: Struggling young families in post-war terraces
4M43: Families in right-to-buy estates
4M44: Post-war estates, limited means

4N: Poorer Pensioners

4N45: Pensioners in social housing, semis and terraces
4N46: Elderly people in social rented flats
4N47: Low income older people in smaller semis
4N48: Pensioners and singles in social rented flats

5: Urban Adversity

5O: Young Hardship

5O49: Young families in low cost private flats
5O50: Struggling younger people in mixed tenure
5O51: Young people in small, low cost terraces

5P: Struggling Estates

5P52: Poorer families, many children, terraced housing
5P53: Low income terraces
5P54: Mutli-ethnic, purpose-built estates
5P55: Deprived and ethnically diverse in flats
5P56: Low income large families in social rented semis

5Q: Difficult Circumstances

5Q57: Social rented flats, families
5Q58: Singles and young families, some receiving benefits
5Q59: Deprived areas and high-rise flats

The following two maps show the dominant ACORN Category and ACORN Group for each of the 853 output areas (small geographical areas) in Hull.

Map of ACORN Categories for Hull (defined as dominant ACORN Category for each output area)

Map of dominat ACORN Categories for each output area in Hull

Map of ACORN Groups for Hull (defined as dominant ACORN Group for each output area)

Map of dominant ACORN Groups for each output area in Hull

There are two nested Wellbeing ACORN layers, Groups (4) and Types (25) as follows:

1: Health Challenges

1.1: Limited living
1.2: Poorly pensioners
1.3: Hardship heartlands
1.4: Elderly ailments
1.5: Countryside complacency

2: At Risk

2.6: Dangerous dependencies
2.7: Struggling smokers
2.8: Despondent diversity
2.9: Everyday excesses
2.10: Respiratory risks
2.11: Anxious adversity
2.12: Perilous futures
2.13: Regular revellers

3: Caution

3.14: Rooted routines
3.15: Borderline behaviours
3.16: Countryside concerns
3.17: Everything in moderation
3.18: Cultural concerns

4: Healthy

4.19: Relishing retirement
4.20: Perky pensioners
4.21: Sensible seniors
4.22: Gym & Juices
4.23: Happy families
4.24: Five-a-day greys
4.25: Healthy, wealthy & wine

The following map shows the dominant Wellbeing ACORN Group for each of the 853 output areas (small geographical areas) in Hull.

Map of Wellbeing ACORN Groups for Hull (defined as dominant Wellbeing ACORN Group for each output area)

Map of dominant Wellbeing ACORN Group for each output area in Hull

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Customer Profiles

The Hull City Council Customer Profiles were produced using the methodology from a Leeds University PhD project, which involved cluster analysis of a number of 2001 Census variables at lower layer super output area level. The ten classifications that were produced were largely defined by housing tenure and age. Life expectancy and under 75 all cause mortality rates have been examined within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Life Expectancy and Hull JSNA Toolkit: Mortality respectively in relation to these Customer Profile types. A revised set of Customer Profiles have recently been developed using data from the 2011 Census.

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Healthy Foundations

The Department of Health have generated a segmentation model toolkit (see https://socialmarketingportal.dh.gov.uk/healthyfoundations/) for more information).

Individuals are classified based on their health-related behaviour. Attitudinal and psychographic data (a person's overall approach to life, including personality traits, values and beliefs) are included within the model. There are five classifications (with the estimates nationally):

i) Health Conscious Realists (21%)
ii) Balanced Compensators (17%)
iii) Live for Todays (25%)
iv) Hedonistic Immortals (19%)
v) Unconfident Fatalists (18%).

A brief summary of the different healthy foundations types is shown below.

"Health Conscious Realists are motivated people who feel in control of their lives and their health. In terms of their profile, they are more likely to be female, live in less deprived areas, and be older than the average. In terms of their behaviours, they are more likely to display positive health behaviours, be highly motivated, be in control of their lives and their health, have a low incidence of drug and smoking use, and eat healthily.

Balanced Compensators are positive and like to look and feel good about themselves. They get some pleasure from taking risks. However, they don't take risks with health. Health is very important to them, and something they fell in control of. A healthy lifestyle is generally easy and enjoyable. In terms of their profile, they are more likely to be male, and work full-time compared to the average of the national population. In terms of behaviours, they generally display positive health behaviours, exercise regularly, eat healthily and have a low prevalence of smoking and drug use.

Live for Todays definitely like to 'live for today' and take a short term view of life. They believe that whatever they do is unlikely to have an impact on their health, so what's the point? They are the segment who are most resistant to change. In terms of their profile, they tend to live in more deprived areas. In terms of behaviours, they exhibit fairly poor health behaviours, hold short-term view of life, are fatalistic about life, are more likely to smoke and drink heavily, and have little concern for their future wellbeing.

Hedonistic Immortals are people who want to get the most from life. They do not mind taking risks – as this is part of leading a full life. They do not have a problem with leading a healthy lifestyle: it would be fairly easy and enjoyable to do so, and they certainly intend to live healthily. However, they feel that anything which is enjoyable, such as smoking and drinking, cannot be all bad. In terms of profile, they tend to be younger than average and live in less deprived areas. In terms of behaviours, they are motivated by environment and risk, display lack of concern for their health and wellbeing, and have higher-than-average incidence of drug taking.

Unconfident Fatalists, overall, feel fairly negative about things, and don't feel good about themselves. Significant proportions feel depressed. They feel that a healthy lifestyle would not be easy or in their control. In terms of profile, they tend to be older than average, live in more deprived areas, least likely to be in paid work and more likely to be retired. In terms of behaviours, they exhibit the most negative health behaviours, hold negative perceptions of a healthy lifestyle and are often fatalistic about their own health."

- Department of Heath (2010). Healthy Foundations Life-stage Segmentation Model Toolkit. Version 1: April-June 2010. www.dh.gov.uk. London, Department of Health.

The 2011-12 Adult Health and Lifestyle Survey included the 19 questions used to classify individuals into the Healthy Foundations groups. Many of the responses to other questions were tabulated in relation to the Healthy Foundation types in the following reports:

Adult Health and Lifestyle Survey 2011-12 Main Report
BME Health and Lifestyle Survey 2011-12 Main Report

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Sport England

Sport England has also undertaken a classification exercise, grouping the population into 19 groups defined on the basis of gender, age, socio-economic class and exercise levels (www.sportengland.org/research/market_segmentation.aspx).

Modelling has been undertaken to estimate the numbers of people in each of the 19 segments within each postcode. The dominant (or most common) segment can be obtained from this modelling. Sport England has also modelled the number of people in larger geographical groups (lower layer super output area (LLSOAs) – the same areas used to define levels of deprivation; middle layer super output areas; and output areas), and the dominant segment is also available for these larger geographical areas.

A map within Hull JSNA Toolkit: Deprivation and Associated Measures gives the dominant segments for LLSOAs. Among the 163 LLSOAs in Hull, 11 of the 19 segments have LLSOAs where the segment is in the majority. The segments are named for single people or couples and the most common dominant segments are 'Elsie and Arnold', 'Paula', 'Philip', 'Jamie' and 'Kev'.

Each segment has specific characteristics, main age group and socio-economic group which are the most typical. For instance, the 'Paula' segment 'Stretched Single Mums' relates to "Single mums with financial pressures, childcare issues and little time for pleasure. Job-seeker or part-time low skilled worker, children, single." and they are generally aged 16-45 years and are in socio-economic groups D and E. The 'Elsie and Arnold' segment 'Retirement Homes Singles' relates to "Retired singles or widowers, predominantly female, living in sheltered accommodation. Retired, widowed." and are generally aged 66+ and are in socio-economic groups D and E. The 'Jamie' segment 'Sports Team Lads' relates to "Young blokes enjoying football, pints and pool. Vocational student, single." and are generally aged 18-25 and in socio-economic groups C2, D and E. Details of each segment is given in Hull JSNA Toolkit: Deprivation and Associated Measures.

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